International Classification (ICD) D64.-


When the concentration of haemoglobin, the pigment in red blood cells (erythrocytes), is reduced, doctors speak of anaemia. Haemoglobin is needed to transport oxygen. Signs of a possible anaemia are:

  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Palpitations
  • Feeling of weakness
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Paleness (skin and mucous membranes)

Although it always presents itself in the same way, anaemia can have a wide variety of causes. Based on its trigger, several forms are distinguished:

Too little production or abnormal erythrocytes due to

  • Folic acid deficiency anaemia, iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia
  • Renal anemia (renal insufficiency)
  • Cancer affecting the bone marrow (leukemia, metastases from other tumors)
  • Infections and inflammations affecting the bone marrow
  • Genetic blood formation disorders (e.g. thalassemia, sideroachrestic anemia)

Loss of erythrocytes due to

  • Bleeding (also menstruation)
  • Increased degradation (haemolysis) due to enzyme defects, drugs, chemicals

Disturbance in distribution of sufficient blood volume due to

  • Pregnancy
  • Hypersplenism (very enlarged spleen)

Combined or unclear causes

  • Chronic diseases
  • Metabolic diseases (endocrine)

Adult women are affected far more often (14%) than men (only 1%).

Two-thirds of anemias are caused by iron deficiency. The second most common cause is infection (e.g. from bacteria, viruses, fungi, cancer, autoimmune diseases and heart disease).


Search our database for drugs, sorted from A-Z with their effects and ingredients.


All substances with their common uses, chemical components and medical products which contain them.


Causes, symptoms and treatment for the most common diseases and injuries.

The contents shown do not replace the original package insert of the medicinal product, especially with regard to dosage and effect of the individual products. We cannot assume any liability for the correctness of the data, as the data was partly converted automatically. A doctor should always be consulted for diagnoses and other health questions. Further information on this topic can be found here.