Ambroxol

Ambroxol
ATC Code R02AD05, R05CB06, R07AA03
Formula C13H18Br2N2O
Molar Mass (g·mol−1) 378,10
Physical State solid
Melting Point (°C) 233–234,5
CAS Number 18683-91-5
PUB Number 2132
Drugbank ID DB06742
Solubility wenig löslich in Wasser

Basics

Ambroxol is an expectorant drug that belongs to the group of expectorants. Ambroxol is indicated for secretolytic therapy in bronchopulmonary diseases with abnormal mucus secretion and transport. Mucus is more easily cleared and the patient's breathing is facilitated. It is often administered in the form of cough syrups, but is also given in lozenge form.

It was patented in 1966 and came into medical use in 1979.

Indications

  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Acute/chronic bronchitis
  • Colds
  • Cystic fibrosis

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

The compound acts on the mucous membranes to restore physiologic clearance mechanisms of the airways (which play an important role in the body's natural defenses) by several mechanisms, including dissolving mucus, stimulating mucus production, and stimulating the synthesis and release of surfactant by type II pneumocytes.

Ambroxol also binds and inhibits Na channels in pain-conducting peripheral nerve cells. This is due to its structural similarity to substances from the group of local anesthetics. This results in pain relief, which is why ambroxol is also suitable as an agent for the symptomatic treatment of sore throat. However, the analgesic effect is inferior to that of other analgesics, which is why there is no explicit recommendation for the use of ambroxol in sore throats.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption is rapid and almost complete. Protein binding is 90% and plasma half-life is usually between 7 and 12 hours.

Toxicity

Side effects

  • Hypersensitivity reactions
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Dry mouth
  • Fever
  • Chills

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Liver dysfunction
  • Bronchoconstriction

Toxicological data

LD50, mouse, oral: 2720 mg-kg-1

Editorial principles

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Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter
Author

Markus Falkenstätter is a writer on pharmaceutical topics in Medikamio's medical editorial team. He is in the last semester of his pharmacy studies at the University of Vienna and loves scientific work in the field of natural sciences.

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer
Lector

Stefanie Lehenauer has been a freelance writer for Medikamio since 2020 and studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna. She works as a pharmacist in Vienna and her passion is herbal medicines and their effects.

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