Dexpanthenol

Dexpanthenol
ATC Code A03FA13, A11HA30, D03AX03, G02CD07, R01AX26, S01XA12
Formula C9H19NO4
Molar Mass (g·mol−1) 205,25
Physical State liquid
Density (g·cm−3) 1,2
Melting Point (°C) <25
Boiling Point (°C) 118-120
CAS Number 81-13-0
PUB Number 131204
Drugbank ID DB09357

Basics

Dexpanthenol is an active ingredient of the vitamin B group that is believed to have wound-healing and moisturizing properties. It is a common ingredient in many medicines, cosmetics and medical products and is widely used for the prevention and treatment of skin and mucous membrane diseases and to support wound healing (or, for example, to heal newly stung tattoos).
Zudem wird Dexpanthenol auch zur Vorbeugung eines Vitaminmangels bei Patienten verwendet, die eine vollständige parentale Ernährung erhalten.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Dexpanthenol is an alcohol derivative of pantothenic acid (a B vitamin), which is an essential component of a normally functioning epithelium (the top cell layer of skin tissue). Enzymatically, it is cleaved to pantothenic acid, which is a component of coenzyme A. This in turn acts as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in which acetyl groups are transferred. These processes are important for the formation and regeneration of the skin and mucosa by causing increased fibroblast proliferation and accelerated re-epithelialization (i.e., new formation of skin tissue) during wound healing.

In addition, coenzyme A is involved in the synthesis of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the transmitter in the parasympathetic (involuntary) nervous system and as such maintains normal intestinal functions. Dexpanthenol may enhance the action of acetylcholine and acts on the gastrointestinal tract by increasing lower intestinal motility.

Pharmacokinetics

Unlike pantothenic acid, dexpanthenol is better absorbed and transported across membranes. The rate of penetration and absorption is reduced when dexpanthenol is administered as an oil/water formula, which is why the drug is usually presented on an ointment base.
Etwa 70 % einer oralen Dosis Pantothensäure werden unverändert im Urin und etwa 30 % im Stuhl ausgeschieden.

Interactions

There are no known drug-drug interactions when applied to the skin.

For theoretical reasons, manufacturers of medications containing dexpanthenol recommend that it not be taken with or within 12 hours of taking neostigmine or other parasympathomimetics (substances that mimic the actions of the involuntary nervous system).
Obwohl die klinische Bedeutung nicht nachgewiesen wurde, können die pupillenverengenden Wirkungen von Anticholinesterase-Augenpräparaten (z. B. Echothiophat-Iodid, Isoflurophat) Berichten zufolge durch Pantothensäure verstärkt werden.

Toxicity

Side effects

Undesirable side effects, such as allergic reactions, occur rarely.

Toxicological data

LD50 (mouse, intraperitoneal): 9 g/kg
LD50 (Maus, intravenös): 7 g/kg
LD50 (Maus, oral): 15 g/kg
LD50 (Kaninchen, oral): 4 g/kg

Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter
Author

Markus Falkenstätter ist Autor zu pharmazeutischen Themen in der Medizin-Redaktion von Medikamio. Er befindet sich im letzten Semester seines Pharmaziestudiums an der Universität Wien und liebt das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten im Bereich der Naturwissenschaften.

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer
Lector

Stefanie Lehenauer ist seit 2020 freie Autorin bei Medikamio und studierte Pharmazie an der Universität Wien. Sie arbeitet als Apothekerin in Wien und ihre Leidenschaft sind pflanzliche Arzneimittel und deren Wirkung.

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The contents shown do not replace the original package insert of the medicinal product, especially with regard to dosage and effect of the individual products. We cannot assume any liability for the correctness of the data, as the data was partly converted automatically. A doctor should always be consulted for diagnoses and other health questions. Further information on this topic can be found here.