Enoxaparin

Enoxaparin
ATC Code B01AB05
Physical State solid
Melting Point (°C) 140
CAS Number 679809-58-6
PUB Number 772
Drugbank ID DB01225
Solubility soluble in water

Basics

Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant (blood thinner) medicine. It is used to treat and prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, including during pregnancy and after certain surgeries. It is also used in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart attacks. Enoxaparin is also used to assist with hemodialysis. It is administered by injection directly under the skin or into a vein.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodyamics

The mechanism of action of enoxaparin is antithrombin dependent. It acts primarily by accelerating the neutralization of certain activated clotting factors by antithrombin. By activating antithrombin III, enoxaparin preferentially potentiates the inhibition of coagulation factors Xa and IIa, providing anticoagulation.

Pharmacokinetics

The bioavailability of enoxaparin after subcutaneous injection is nearly 100%. The drug is 80% bound to plasma proteins. Enoxaparin is metabolized primarily in the liver by desulfation and/or depolymerization to lower molecular weight metabolites with greatly reduced biological potency. Total renal excretion of active and non-active fragments accounts for approximately 40% of the dose. The plasma half-life is approximately 4.5 hours.

Drug Interactions

Enoxaparin should not be used together with other anticoagulants.

Toxicity

Side effects

  • bleeding, especially of the skin and mucous membranes, bleeding anaemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis
  • allergic reactions like urticaria, pruritus, erythema
  • Headache
  • Transaminase increase
  • injection site reactions
  • accumulation in renal insufficiency
Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter
Author

Markus Falkenstätter ist Autor zu pharmazeutischen Themen in der Medizin-Redaktion von Medikamio. Er befindet sich im letzten Semester seines Pharmaziestudiums an der Universität Wien und liebt das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten im Bereich der Naturwissenschaften.

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer
Lector

Stefanie Lehenauer ist seit 2020 freie Autorin bei Medikamio und studierte Pharmazie an der Universität Wien. Sie arbeitet als Apothekerin in Wien und ihre Leidenschaft sind pflanzliche Arzneimittel und deren Wirkung.

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