Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen
ATC Code C01EB16, G02CC01, M01AE01, M02AA13, R02AX02
Formula C13H18O2
Molar Mass (g·mol−1) 206,28
Physical State solid
Density (g·cm−3) 1,175
Melting Point (°C) 76
Boiling Point (°C) 154–157
PKS Value 5.3
CAS Number 15687-27-1
PUB Number 3672
Drugbank ID DB01050
Solubility insoluble in water

Basics

Ibuprofen is a drug in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. These include painful menstrual bleeding, migraines, and rheumatoid arthritis. It can be given orally in the form of tablets or capsules, or intravenously. It usually takes about an hour to take effect. In most preparations, ibuprofen is available without a prescription as an "over-the-counter" product.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

NSAIDs such as ibuprofen act by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. These act as the mediators of pain, inflammation and fever. It also inhibits the formation of thromboxane A2 (which stimulates platelet aggregation, leading to the formation of blood clots). Ibuprofen is a non-selective COX inhibitor because it inhibits both isoforms of cyclooxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2. The analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs appear to act primarily by inhibiting COX-2. Inhibition of COX-1 is instead responsible for the adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration, the maximum serum concentration is reached after 1-2 hours. Up to 99% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins. Most of the drug is metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine within 24 hours; 1% of the given dose is excreted in the stool.

Drug interactions

Drinking alcohol while taking Ibuprofen may increase the risk of stomach bleeding.

Ibuprofen may possibly interfere with the antiplatelet effect of low-dose aspirin, possibly making aspirin less effective when used for cardioprotection and stroke prevention.

Toxicity

Side Effects

Adverse effects include:

  • Nausea
  • Dyspepsia
  • Diarrhea
  • constipation
  • gastrointestinal ulceration/bleeding
  • headache
  • Dizziness
  • Rash
  • salt and fluid retention
  • Hypertension

Toxicological data

LD50 (rat,oral): 636 mg-kg-1

Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter
Author

Markus Falkenstätter ist Autor zu pharmazeutischen Themen in der Medizin-Redaktion von Medikamio. Er befindet sich im letzten Semester seines Pharmaziestudiums an der Universität Wien und liebt das wissenschaftliche Arbeiten im Bereich der Naturwissenschaften.

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer
Lector

Stefanie Lehenauer ist seit 2020 freie Autorin bei Medikamio und studierte Pharmazie an der Universität Wien. Sie arbeitet als Apothekerin in Wien und ihre Leidenschaft sind pflanzliche Arzneimittel und deren Wirkung.

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