Insulin (human) or human insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood glucose levels in the body. It is a peptide hormone consisting of the two polypeptide chains A and B. Human insulin is used to treat diabetes mellitus, a disease in which the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot properly utilize the insulin it does produce. In the medical context, artificially produced but unmodified inuslin is also referred to as normal insulin.
Use and indications
Insulin human is used for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, it is the drug of first choice. However, modified forms of human insulin with improved properties are now available and are used more frequently. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes, insulin is used only when conventional therapy, as well as lifestyle changes, are not sufficient to reduce blood glucose.
There are basically 2 types of insulin used. Basal insulin is used to regulate blood glucose levels between meals and at night in people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes. This type of insulin is given once a day, usually at night, and provides about half of a person's daily insulin needs.
Prandial insulin, also known as mealtime or bolus insulin, given before a meal to regulate the rise in blood glucose levels after eating. The dose of this may be static or calculated by the patient based on current blood glucose levels or planned carbohydrate intake, and is usually given along with a rapid-acting insulin or a regular insulin no more than 15-30 minutes before a meal.
Insulin is usually injected subcutaneously. The dosage depends on the meal and the patient. Insulin can also be administered automatically by
Insulin was discovered in the early 20th century by Canadian researchers Frederick Banting and Charles Best. They developed a method for extracting insulin from animal pancreases and successfully treated the first human patient with insulin in 1921. For this achievement, the researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1923.
In the 1920s, insulin was first marketed by the Eli Lilly company. In the 1980s, recombinant DNA technology was developed, which enabled the production of human insulin using genetically modified bacteria. This development enabled the production of purer forms of human insulin and reduced the risk of allergic reactions and other side effects. It also made it possible to modify the structure of insulin, resulting in many of the forms used today.