Nystatin

Nystatin
ATC Code A01AB33, A07AA02, D01AA01, G01AA01
Formula C47H75NO17
Molar Mass (g·mol−1) 926,09
Physical State solid
Melting Point (°C) 250
CAS Number 1400-61-9
PUB Number 6433272
Drugbank ID DB00646
Solubility soluble in water

Basics

Nystatin is an antifungal medication. It is used to treat Candida (yeast) infections of the skin, including diaper rash, thrush, esophageal candidiasis, and vaginal yeast infections. It can also be used to prevent fungal infections. Nystatin can be used by mouth, in the vagina, or on the skin.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Nystatin is a channel-forming ionophore, meaning that it exerts its therapeutic effect via the formation of a membrane-spanning pore in the plasma membrane of the fungus. Formation of this pore results in a change in membrane permeability that allows leakage of intracellular contents and subsequent disruption of the electrochemical gradient, which are necessary for proper cell function. The selectivity for fungal cells over mammalian cells is due to the greater binding affinity of nystatin for ergosterol, a molecule found only in fungal cells.

Pharmacokinetics

Systemic absorption of nystatin is minimal after oral administration, and no detectable plasma concentrations are achieved after topical or vaginal administration. Nystatin is not absorbed into the systemic circulation; therefore, there are no data on the pharmacokinetic properties of this drug.

Toxicity

Side effects

  • Bitter taste and nausea are common adverse reactions.

The oral suspension form may cause a number of adverse effects:

Common

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain

Rarely

  • Tachycardia
  • Bronchospasm
  • Facial swelling
  • Muscle pain

Both the oral suspension and the topical form may cause

  • hypersensitivity reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • Rash
  • Itching
  • Burning and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

Toxicological Data

LD50 (rat, oral): 10,000 mg-kg-1

Sources

  • Drugbank.com
  • PubChem
  • Aktories, Förstermann, Hofmann, Starke: Allgemeine und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Elsvier, 2017

Editorial principles

All information used for the content comes from verified sources (recognised institutions, experts, studies by renowned universities). We attach great importance to the qualification of the authors and the scientific background of the information. Thus, we ensure that our research is based on scientific findings.

Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter
Author

Markus Falkenstätter is a writer on pharmaceutical topics in Medikamio's medical editorial team. He is in the last semester of his pharmacy studies at the University of Vienna and loves scientific work in the field of natural sciences.

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer
Lector

Stefanie Lehenauer has been a freelance writer for Medikamio since 2020 and studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna. She works as a pharmacist in Vienna and her passion is herbal medicines and their effects.

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