Thiamine (vitamin B1)

Thiamine (vitamin B1)
ATC Code A11DA01
Formula C12H17N4OS+
Molar Mass (g·mol−1) 265.36
Physical State solid
Melting Point (°C) 248
CAS Number 70-16-6
PUB Number 1130
Drugbank ID DB00152


Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential micronutrient from the group of B vitamins. Thiamine plays a key role in intracellular glucose metabolism and contributes significantly to the body's ability to convert carbohydrates and fat into energy. It is essential for normal growth and development and helps maintain the function of the heart and the nervous and digestive systems. Thiamine is not stored by the body, so its requirements are always obtained directly from food. It is found mainly in whole grain products, legumes and in meat and fish.

Thiamine was first discovered by Umetaro Suzuki in Japan while studying beriberi patients.



Thiamine in only the transport form of the vitamin. Thiamine phosphate derivatives are involved as active forms in numerous cellular processes. In its phosphate form, thiamine has important functions as a coenzyme in decarboxylation by certain enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

Thiamine triphosphate (TTP) is found in high concentrations in neurons, at whose axons it maintains ion channel functionality.


Protein binding of thiamine is approximately 90-94%.


Toxicological data

Toxic phenomena after ingestion are not expected, as excess is immediately excreted from the body. Long-term supplementation of doses in excess of 3 grams per cologram of body weight may result in signs of toxicity.

LD50, oral, mouse = 8224 mg/kg,

LD50, oral, rat = 3710 mg/kg.

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Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter

Markus Falkenstätter is a writer on pharmaceutical topics in Medikamio's medical editorial team. He is in the last semester of his pharmacy studies at the University of Vienna and loves scientific work in the field of natural sciences.

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm Stefanie Lehenauer

Stefanie Lehenauer has been a freelance writer for Medikamio since 2020 and studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna. She works as a pharmacist in Vienna and her passion is herbal medicines and their effects.

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