Actrapid is human insulin to treat diabetes. Actrapid is a fast-acting insulin. This means that it will start to lower your blood sugar about half an hour after you take it, and the effect will last for approximately 8 hours. Actrapid is often given in combination with longer-acting insulin products.
|Table of Contents|
|What do you have to consider before using it?|
|How is it used?|
|What are possible side effects?|
|How should it be stored?|
Do not use Actrapid
If you are allergic hypersensitive to this insulin product, metacresol or any of the other ingredients see 7 Further information. Look out for the signs of allergy in 5 Possible side effects If you feel a hypo coming on a hypo is short for a hypoglycaemic reaction and is a symptom of low blood sugar. See 4 What to do in an emergency for more about hypos.
Take special care with Actrapid
If you have trouble with your kidneys or liver, or with your adrenal, pituitary or thyroid glands If you are drinking alcohol watch for signs of a hypo and never drink alcohol on an empty stomach If you are exercising more than usual or if you want to change your usual diet If you are ill carry on taking your insulin If you are going abroad travelling over time zones may affect your insulin needs and the timing of your injections.
Using other medicines
Many medicines affect the way glucose works in your body and they may influence your insulin dose. Listed below are the most common medicines which may affect your insulin treatment. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you take or have recently taken any other medicines, even those not prescribed. Your need for insulin may change if you also take: oral antidiabetic products; monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI); beta-blockers; ACE-inhibitors; acetylsalicylic acid; anabolic steroids; sulphonamides; oral contraceptives; thiazides; glucocorticoids; thyroid hormone therapy; beta-sympathomimetics; growth hormone; danazol; octreotide or lanreotide.
Pioglitazone (oral antidiabetic medicine used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus) Some patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart disease or previous stroke who were treated with pioglitazone and insulin experienced the development of heart failure. Inform your doctor as soon as possible if you experience signs of heart failure such as unusual shortness of breath or rapid increase in weight or localised swelling (oedema).
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
If you are pregnant, planning a pregnancy or breast-feeding: please contact your doctor for advice.
Driving and using machines
If you drive or use tools or machines: watch out for signs of a hypo. Your ability to concentrate or to react will be less during a hypo. Never drive or use machinery if you feel a hypo coming on. Discuss with your doctor whether you can drive or use machines at all, if you have a lot of hypos or if you find it hard to recognise hypos.
Talk about your insulin needs with your doctor and diabetes nurse. Follow their advice carefully. This leaflet is a general guide.
If your doctor has switched you from one type or brand of insulin to another, your dose may have to be adjusted by your doctor.
Eat a meal or snack containing carbohydrates within 30 minutes of the injection.
It is recommended that you measure your blood glucose regularly.
Before using Actrapid
Check the label to make sure it is the right type of insulin Always check the cartridge, including the rubber plunger stopper. Dont use it if any damage is seen or if there is a gap between the rubber plunger and the white label band. Take it back to your supplier. See your delivery system manual for further instructions Disinfect the rubber membrane with a medicinal swab Always use a new needle for each injection to prevent contamination.
Do not use Actrapid
In insulin infusion pumps If Penfill or the device containing Penfill is dropped, damaged or crushed there is a risk of leakage of insulin If it hasnt been stored correctly or been frozen see 6 How to store Actrapid If it does not appear water clear and colourless.
Do not refill Actrapid Penfill.
Penfill cartridges are designed to be used with Novo Nordisk insulin delivery systems and NovoFine or NovoTwist needles.
If you are treated with Actrapid Penfill and another insulin Penfill cartridge, you should use two insulin delivery systems, one for each type of insulin.
How to use this insulin
Actrapid is for injection under the skin (subcutaneously). Always vary the sites you inject, to avoid lumps (see 5 Possible side effects). The best places to give yourself an injection are: the front of your waist (abdomen); your buttocks; the front of your thighs or upper arms. Your insulin will work more quickly if you inject it around the waist.
How to inject this insulin
Inject the insulin under the skin. Use the injection technique advised by your doctor or diabetes nurse and described in your delivery system manual
Keep the needle under your skin for at least 6 seconds to make sure that the full dose has been delivered After each injection be sure to remove and discard the needle and store Actrapid without the needle attached. Otherwise, the liquid may leak out which can cause inaccurate dosing.
Like all medicines, Actrapid can cause side effects although not everybody gets them. Actrapid may cause hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar). See the advice in 4 What to do in an emergency.
Side effects reported uncommonly (in less than 1 patient in 100)
Vision problems. When you first start your treatment, it may disturb your vision, but the reaction usually disappears.
Changes at the injection site (Lipodystrophy). If you inject yourself too often at the same site, fatty tissue under the skin at this site may shrink (lipoatrophy) or thicken (lipohypertrophy). Changing the site with each injection may help to prevent such skin changes. If you notice your skin pitting or thickening at the injection site, tell your doctor or diabetes nurse because these reactions can become more severe, or they may change the absorption of your insulin if you inject in such a site.
Signs of allergy. Reactions (redness, swelling, itching) at the injection site may occur (local allergic reactions). These usually disappear after a few weeks of taking your insulin. If they do not disappear, see your doctor.
Seek medical advice immediately:
- if signs of allergy spread to other parts of the body, or
- if you suddenly feel unwell and you start sweating; start being sick (vomiting); have difficulty in breathing; have a rapid heart beat; feel dizzy; feel like fainting. You may have a very rare serious allergic reaction to Actrapid or one of its ingredients (called a systemic allergic reaction). See also warning in 2 Before you use Actrapid.
Painful neuropathy (nerve related pain). If your blood glucose levels improve very fast it may cause a burning, tingling or electric pain. This is called acute painful neuropathy and it usually disappears. If it does not disappear, see your doctor.
Swollen joints. When you start taking insulin, water retention may cause swelling around your ankles and other joints. This soon disappears.
Side effects reported very rarely (in less than 1 patient in 10,000)
Diabetic retinopathy (eye background changes). If you have diabetic retinopathy and your blood glucose levels improve very fast, the retinopathy may get worse. Ask your doctor about this.
If any of the side effects gets serious, or if you notice any side effects not listed in this leaflet, please tell your doctor, diabetes nurse or pharmacist.
Keep out of the reach and sight of children.
Do not use Actrapid after the expiry date which is stated on the label and the carton. The expiry date refers to the last day of that month.
The Penfill that is not being used is to be stored in a refrigerator (2°C - 8°C).
Do not store them in or too near the freezer section or cooling element.
Do not freeze.
Keet the Penfill in the original package.
The Penfill that is being used or about to be used is not to be kept in a refrigerator. You can carry it with you and keep it at room temperature (not above 30°C) for up to 6 weeks.
Always keep your cartridge in the outer carton when you?re not using it in order to protect it from light.
Actrapid must be protected from excessive heat and sunlight.
Actrapid should not be disposed of via wastewater or household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to dispose of medicines no longer required. These measures will help to protect the environment.
What Actrapid contains
The active substance is insulin human made by recombinant biotechnology. 1 ml contains 100 IU of insulin human. 1 cartridge contains 3 ml equivalent to 300 IU
The other ingredients are zinc chloride, glycerol, metacresol, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and water for injections.
What Actrapid looks like and contents of the pack
The solution for injection comes as a clear, colourless, aqueous solution.
It is supplied in packs of 1, 5 or 10 cartridges of 3 ml. Not all packs may be marketed.
Marketing Authorisation Holder
Novo Nordisk A/S
Novo Allé, DK-2880 Bagsværd, Denmark
The manufacturer can be identified by the batch number printed on the slip of the carton and on the label:
If the second and third characters are W5, S6, P5, K7, or ZF Novo Nordisk AS, Novo Allé, DK-2880 Bagsværd, Denmark is the manufacturer
If the second and third characters are H7 or T6 Novo Nordisk Production SAS, 45 Avenue dOrléans F-28002 Chartres, France is the manufacturer.
This leaflet was last approved in
WHAT TO DO IN AN EMERGENCY
If you get a hypo
A hypo means your blood sugar level is too low.
Thewarning signs of a hypo may come on suddenly and can include: cold sweat; cool pale skin; headache; rapid heart beat; feeling sick; feeling very hungry; temporary changes in vision; drowsiness; unusual tiredness and weakness; nervousness or tremor; feeling anxious; feeling confused; difficulty in concentrating.
If you get any of these signs, eat glucose tablets or a high sugar snack (sweets, biscuits, fruit juice), then rest.
Don?t take any insulin if you feel a hypo coming on.
Carry glucose tablets, sweets, biscuits or fruit juice with you, just in case.
Tell your relatives, friends and close colleagues that if you pass out (become unconscious), they must: turn you on your side and seek medical advice straight away. They must not give you any food or drink as it could choke you.
- If severe hypoglycaemia is not treated, it can cause brain damage (temporary or permanent) and even death
- If you have a hypo that makes you pass out, or a lot of hypos, talk to your doctor. The amount or timing of insulin, food or exercise may need to be adjusted.
You may recover more quickly from unconsciousness with an injection of the hormone glucagon by someone who knows how to use it. If you are given glucagon you will need glucose or a sugary snack as soon as you are conscious. If you do not respond to glucagon treatment, you will have to be treated in a hospital. Seek medical advice after an injection of glucagon; you need to find the reason for your hypo to avoid getting more.
Causes of a hypo
You get a hypo if your blood sugar gets too low. This might happen:
- If you take too much insulin
- If you eat too little or miss a meal
- If you exercise more than usual.
If your blood sugar gets too high
Your blood sugar may get too high (this is called hyperglycaemia).
Thewarning signs appear gradually. They include: increased urination; feeling thirsty; losing your appetite; feeling sick (nausea or vomiting); feeling drowsy or tired; flushed, dry skin; dry mouth and a fruity (acetone) smell of the breath.
If you get any of these signs, test your blood sugar level and test your urine for ketones if you can. Then seek medical advice straight away.
These may be signs of a very serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. If you don?t treat it, this could lead to diabetic coma and death.
Causes of hyperglycaemia
- Having forgotten to take your insulin
- Repeatedly taking less insulin than you need
- An infection or a fever
- Eating more than usual
- Less exercise than usual.