Vildagliptin is an oral antidiabetic drug that is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. It belongs to the class of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.

Vildagliptin is used to improve blood glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus . It is usually prescribed in combination with other antidiabetic medications such as metformin, sulfonylureas or insulin.

Vildagliptin is available as a mono or combination preparation in tablet form for oral administration. As a combination preparation, it is only available with metformin.

Graphic structural formula of the active substance vildagliptin

Drugs with Vildagliptin

Drug Substance(s) Authorisation holder
Xiliarx 50 mg tablets Vildagliptin Novartis Europharm Ltd.
Jalra 50 mg tablets Vildagliptin Novartis Europharm Ltd.
Galvus 50 mg tablets Vildagliptin Novartis Europharm Ltd.


Vildagliptin exerts its blood glucose-lowering effect by selectively inhibiting the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which rapidly cleaves and inactivates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-independent peptide (GIP) after their release from intestinal cells. Inhibition of DPP-4 significantly prolongs the half-life of GLP-1 and GIP, thereby increasing the levels of active circulating incretin hormones. Incretins are hormones produced by the intestine in response to food intake and stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas. The increased release of insulin causes glucose to be absorbed from the blood into the cells, thus lowering blood sugar levels. In addition to its effect on insulin secretion, GLP-1 is also involved in promoting the new formation (neogenesis) and differentiation of islet cells and in attenuating cell death (apoptosis) of pancreatic beta cells. Incretin hormones also have effects outside the pancreas, for example on fat formation (lipogenesis) and heart muscle function.

The duration of DPP-4 inhibition by vildagliptin is dose-dependent. Vildagliptin lowers fasting and prandial blood glucose and HbA1c levels. It increases the glucose sensitivity of alpha and beta cells and increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

The bioavailability of vildagliptin, i.e. the percentage of the active substance available in the blood, is 85%. In the fasting state, vildagliptin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. The half-life, i.e. the time the body needs to excrete half of the active substance, is 2-3 hours. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), i.e. the maximum concentration of the active substance in the blood plasma (liquid cell-free part of the blood), is reached 1 - 2 hours after administration. Food delays the time to 2.5 hours and reduces the maximum plasma concentration by 19 %, but has no effect on the overall exposure to the drug. The plasma protein binding of vildagliptin is 9.3 %. The majority of orally administered vildagliptin is metabolized via a non-cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated metabolism. After oral administration, approximately 85% of the vildagliptin dose is excreted in the urine and approximately 15% of the dose was eliminated in the feces.


Always take vildagliptin exactly as described in the package leaflet or as advised by your doctor.

The usual recommended dose is 50 mg twice a day, which may be adjusted according to the patient's individual response to treatment.

Side Effects

The following side effects may occur:

  • Symptoms indicating an allergic reaction: swollen face, tongue or throat, difficulty swallowing, difficulty breathing, sudden skin rash or hives
  • Symptoms that indicate liver disease: Symptoms such as yellowing of the skin and eyes, nausea, loss of appetite or dark-colored urine
  • Symptoms of inflammation of the pancreas: severe and persistent abdominal pain that can radiate to the back and nausea and vomiting

Other side effects that may occur:


Interactions may occur if the following medicines are taken at the same time:

  • Thiazides or other diuretics
  • Corticosteroids for the treatment of inflammation
  • Thyroid medication
  • Medications that affect the nervous system


Vildagliptin must NOT be taken in the following cases

  • in case of allergy to vildagliptin

Age Restriction

Vildagliptin should NOT be taken by anyone under the age of 18.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Vildagliptin should NOT be taken during pregnancy & breastfeeding as there is limited data on the safety of vildagliptin.

History to the active ingredient

Vildagliptin was first approved for use in Europe in 2007 and subsequently in other countries, including Japan, Canada and Mexico. It is not yet approved in the United States.

Chemical & physical properties

ATC Code A10BH02
Formula C17H25N3O2
Molar Mass (g·mol−1) 303,40
Physical State solid
Density (g·cm−3) 1,3
Melting Point (°C) 190,31
Boiling Point (°C) 531,3
PKS Value 14,71
CAS Number 274901-16-5
PUB Number 6918537
Drugbank ID DB04876

Editorial principles

All information used for the content comes from verified sources (recognised institutions, experts, studies by renowned universities). We attach great importance to the qualification of the authors and the scientific background of the information. Thus, we ensure that our research is based on scientific findings.
Thomas Hofko

Thomas Hofko

Thomas Hofko is in the last third of his bachelor's degree in pharmacy and is a writer on pharmaceutical topics. He is particularly interested in the fields of clinical pharmacy and phytopharmacy.

Mag. pharm. Stefanie Lehenauer

Mag. pharm. Stefanie Lehenauer

Stefanie Lehenauer has been a freelance writer for Medikamio since 2020 and studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna. She works as a pharmacist in Vienna and her passion is herbal medicines and their effects.

The content of this page is an automated and high-quality translation from DeepL. You can find the original content in German here.


Your personal medicine assistent

afgis-Qualitätslogo mit Ablauf Jahr/Monat: Mit einem Klick auf das Logo öffnet sich ein neues Bildschirmfenster mit Informationen über medikamio GmbH & Co KG und sein/ihr Internet-Angebot: This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify.

Search our database for drugs, sorted from A-Z with their effects and ingredients.


All substances with their common uses, chemical components and medical products which contain them.


Causes, symptoms and treatment for the most common diseases and injuries.

The contents shown do not replace the original package insert of the medicinal product, especially with regard to dosage and effect of the individual products. We cannot assume any liability for the correctness of the data, as the data was partly converted automatically. A doctor should always be consulted for diagnoses and other health questions. Further information on this topic can be found here.